Mesmerizing main attractions to explore Australia Tour

Welcome to the land of wonderments. Yes, I'm talking about Australia, the continent most fascinating of the world. Australia is one of the smallest but the most inspiring continents worldwide. This beautiful continent is situated between the Pacific and the Indian continent Ocean.The beautiful, is in the snow-capped mountains, lush green hills, beautiful beaches and exotic wildlife. Australia is dotted with many beautiful natural attractions and manmade attractions that are worth visiting too. This continent is affectionately known as "down under" and visitors to this continent of visits over the world throughout the year.

Some of the attractions is a pure wonder and that will really cast a spell on you as you visit this wonderments are listed below:

Fraser Island: This island is the largest sand island. This island off the coastline is a wonder and you can find 72 different colors of sand. The formation of sand dunes on the island is not surprising and very huge. Visitors love to enjoy and explore the placid lakes, forests, sand cliffs and wildlife on the island is a true wonder. Surely these will bring memories of striking his heart that will not be released easily. In 1992 this island became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Great Barrier Reef: The reef is another natural wonder and also a UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Australia. The Great Barrier Reef is the glory of tourism in Australia. This is the largest coral reef in the world and is home to wide variety of marine life. This is happiness for those scuba divers who dive and see the sea creatures and life under water. Do not get lost if you are not a good swimmer or diver you can just rest between the beaches here, present here in a hundred. The Reef stretches along the beautiful east coast of Australia. Some of the amphibians, which are easily found here are turtles, dolphins, whales, sharks, crocodiles and many alike.

Sydney Opera House: Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney and is the heart of the capital city of Australia. This wonderful marvel was built in the 20th century and was opened in 1973 and was recently listed in UNESCO World Heritage Sites. This is one of the largest buildings constructed in the 20th century. Visitors on your visit to this elegant house can also see an amazing performance made many of the arts in theater and classrooms built in the complex. All holiday packages in Australia planned from any tour operator would be incomplete and why your visit to "down under" without visiting the amazing Sydney Opera House.

Apart from these there are many more wonders in Australia, which is very well worth visiting, and above all, talked to all package tours booked by any of Australia's leading tour operator of your contact. Honestly speaking attractions in Australia is simply amazing how compelling and never met or visited outside of class types. So come and enjoy the most memorable experience of your life. It is best to visit Australia than to regret in your life.

How To Work And Live In Australia

Australia is a country of many beauties. It is full of natural beauty and also a peaceful country in the world. These day's, more and more number of people from around the globe are coming to Australia in search of a good career and lifestyle. There are many professionals in various fields are eager to work in Australia, this country provides all the benefits in this time.

In order to work and live in Australia, you need to have certain skills and knowledge. Australian economy is very strong, especially the hospitality sector in Australia is in a booming stage. This sector requires both skilled and unskilled labors in large numbers in order to meet demand supply gap. In Australia, science and technology and management field is in a thriving mode, which requires large talent pool from all over the world.

Australia provides equal opportunities to immigrants in terms of jobs and long term career opportunities. There are number of places in Australia like Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra are most sought after places to work and live. The standard of living in Australia is not too high and one can get accommodation at a reasonable price. The climate and environment suits everyone to live and work there. In an environmental point of view, Australia is the best place to live in.

If you want to get a permanent citizenship of Australia than, you should follow certain rules and regulations as laid down by Australian Government. If you are a professional or an expert in any field than it is not a difficult task to get a job there. If  you don't have any professional qualification than finding a better job will be  tricky for you. In Australia, English is the primary language, they are using while studying and also on their workplaces. Australian government has been accepting IELTS score for immigrants to get the work permit. If you are wishing to get the permanent citizenship of Australia than, you must fulfill the following eligibility criteria-

1. You must be a permanent resident of Australia.
2. You must be present in Australia for a period of minimum two years as a resident.
3. You must be able to speak and understand basis English.
4. You should understand the responsibilities of an Australian citizen.
5.  You must have a good character and no criminal records in your name.
6.  You must have the intention to reside in Australia and willing to maintain a healthy relationship with Australia.

If you can meet all the above requirements than, you are eligible too get the Australian citizenship. It is very vital to obey their rules and regulations irrespective of your qualifications and knowledge.

Backpacking Around Australia

When backpacking around Australia the very first thing you have to do is check out the very best hostel lodging or perhaps backpacker accommodation you could locate. A lot of people backpacking around Australia simply show up at the city right off the plane and strive for a cheap backpacking place. Currently this is certainly OK, however can be quite dangerous since there are a number of sub standard backpacker hostels around Australia. Mind you concurrently there's a number of very good backpacker hostel lodging around Australia, thus a bit of research prior to arriving is actually well suggested.

If the lone reason for backpacking around Australia is always to create just as much money as they possibly can in the very first month or so of arriving inside Australia then i would certainly completely recommend the Redgum Village Hostel accommodation in Dandaragan West Australia. The thing is there are several well paid jobs in and around Dandaragan such as spud harvesting, or perhaps potato harvesting as the right name.

This is pretty repetitious work however for the person backpacking around Australia and needing some good money beforehand so one can possibly enjoy the delights which Australia has to offer later, makes this adequately useful. Owners of the Redgum Village in Dandaragan West Australia have got connections for about three well organised and also well paying potato growers.

Not merely potato's are here in Dandaragan and also the personnel at Redgum Village can also lead you to three very well established fruit orchards that are constantly in search of the travelling backpackers around Australia to be able to fill positions in the busy part of the planting, pruning as well as picking seasons. This virtually addresses employment throughout the year therefore searching for work in Dandaragan is just a call away.

The well established orchards as well as spud growing in Dandaragan make the Redgum Village backpackers hostel accommodation a very attractive place to stay for backpacking around Australia whilst doing work in the area. The rates are extremely affordable and the orchard companies actually subsidise the accommodation. Doing this along with the $900 a week salary for sorting spuds helps make the entire deal really workable.

So when you are backpacking around Australia, residing at the Redgum Village here in Dandaragan West Australia making good cash and dealing with folks that take care of you as people, and never like some where you are just a number and treated like yeah not just a very nice term. This method is effective and also everyone has a win win situation. You backpacking around Australia earns excellent future spending cash and also can enjoy the country living in peaceful area of the Redgum Village just two hrs north of coming from Perth WA. 

The spud as well as orchard growers have the luxury of personnel based in the town of Dandaragan and realize they are being well looked after as well as prepared for work. It's well known around here that backpackers working around Australia are generally much better value compared to the local simply filling out time in between drinks as well as there interpersonal lifestyle. Everybody backpacking around Australia are highly encouraged to get in touch with owners of the Redgum Village, backpacker's hostel accommodation in Dandaragan WA for high paid work and great spot to rest the wary bones right after an honest day's work. The weather here's just an extra benefit.

Nine Reasons Why you Should Migrate to Australia

Australia isn't dubbed as one of the top migration destination in the world for nothing.

1.       There's a great job for you there. Australia's booming economy is needing all the skilled workers and professionals it can get. Currently, there are over 100,000 vacancies being advertised, while unemployment is at a low of 5%. Skilled migrants are therefore more than welcome to bring in a globally-competitive edge and multi-cultural strength to Australian workforce.

2.       It's a lovely melting pot out there. Australia's shore is open to people from all races and background. Greeks, Brits, Italians, Vietnamese, Germans, Lebanese, and a whole lot other colorful people mingle and coexist happily in Australia. In fact, a stroll at any of Australia's bustling streets is like an instant journey around the world.

3.      It's a fair dinkum beautiful country. An understatement, really. Australia is home to many exotic wonders, the amazing Outback, rich cultural history, lovely beaches, sophisticated cities, awesome wildlife, and plenty other things to discover and explore.

4.        It costs cheap to live in Australia. That's high standard of living but at a low cost to enjoy it. Compared to other developed countries, cost of living in Australia is definitely cheaper. Case in point: If you were in UK, you would have to earn twice as much just to achieve the same standard of good living in Australia.

5.        Australia is safe. Australia is considered as one of the safest place in the world; crime rate, as reported by Australia's Bureau of Statistics, is at an all-time low for the past ten years. Australia is even safer than most Australian themselves think.

6..       Australia offers high standards of living. Australia's vibrant economy allows its citizens to live the good life as evidenced by their ample purchasing power. If you especially have a business, you cannot go wrong setting it up in Australia.

7.       It's cool to study in Australia. The Australian education system is one of the most excellent and most effective in the world. In a 2003 UNICEF study, Australia ranked fifth, just behind North Korea, Japan, and Finland.

8.       Australia has healthy citizens. Just like its education system, Australia's health care systems is among the best in the world. People's taxes indeed go back to them through free and subsidized health services.

9.      It's easy to get to Australia. With the introduction of the eVisa or Electronic Travel Authority (ETA), immigration to Australia has been simplified and made easier.

Top Universities In Australia Will Sweep You Off Your Feet

Studying Abroad is a fancy of a majority of students from every nook and corner of the globe and contrary to prior beliefs that only US and UK are the most pertaining study abroad destinations, one country which is emerging as a strong contender is Australia and prior to study in Australia, students have to make apt preparation pertaining to an assortment of factors.

Some of the facets which bewilder intellectuals world wide are which universities in Australia to choose from, what course to take to study in Australia, what is the tuition fees, what is the cost of living there, the milieu is conducive for studying or not, are the natives welcoming to foreign students and if there are enough placement opportunities accessible. With a bit of intricate research on the World Wide Web, you will lay your hands on answers to all these questions; but you have to look at the right place.

The tuition fees here are much reasonable than countries like the USA and UK. The cost of living in Australia is also pretty reasonable and affordable. The sheer number of disciplines accessible when you choose to study in Australia will surely sweep you of your feet. Universities in Australia are also renowned all around the world for their international standard quality of teaching and accessibility to research activities.

Australia is largely seen as a major tourist destination in the world map; so you will have a lot in hand when you are in weekends or in holidays. Apart from that when you study in Australia, you can take pleasure in a plethora of extra curricular activities when you are not busy studying. It is utterly vital for you to search the internet for the eligibility criteria for the type of program you want to enroll in and the accommodation alternatives accessible, so that you don't perplex yourself when you land there.

When it comes down to the top notch universities in Australia, some of the names which stand out from the crowd are: - Australian Catholic University, Australian National University, Bond University, Central Queensland University, Charles Darwin University, Charles Sturt University, Curtin University of Technology, Deakin University, th Cowan University, Flinders University, Edi James Cook University, Queensland University of Technology, Southern Cross University, Swinburne University of Technology, University of New England (Australia), University of New South Wales, University of Notre Dame Australia, University of Sydney, University of Tasmania, University of the Sunshine Coast, University of Western Australia, University of Wollongong, Victoria University, and a lot more.

International students can also apply for financial aid and scholarships in Australia to fulfill their dreams of higher education on foreign shores. Scholarships in Australia are proffered by the Australian Government, education institutions and a number of other organizations. There are basically three programs when it comes to scholarships in Australia namely: - Endeavour Awards, Australian Leadership Awards (ALA), and Australian Development Scholarships (ADS). Apart from it other scholarships in Australia encompass: - RHODES Scholarship India, The University of Newcastle Research Scholarship for Indian Students, etc.

Cheap Flights to Australia to Enjoy a Great Holydays

Australia is a wide country; it has sixth rank for its largest nation after the name of Canada, China, Russia and Brazil. Australia is very organized because it has very low population as comparing to the other countries. It has the population of 20 millions only. Another part of the continent has sparse population. You will enjoy here by booking your flight Australia. The weather of Australia is unfriendly, it is not much comfortable than the other place like as Sydney and Melbourne. Australia has coastal region so various people are living their lives around only 20 km from the seaside.

Australia has made penal colony hundreds of years back, because they have good relation between UK and Ireland. It works like a magnet to catch visitors from all around the world. There are various places in and out around Australia. The most renowned attraction point is Neighbours and Home & Away. If you are making plans to visit here, then you can contact to registered travel agent to book flights Australia.

Watch In and Around in Australia:-

Australia has nice destinations to explore during your holidays. The first thing require before coming here is to book your business flights Australia. Better to book your Australia flights in advance before the peak season creates any complication in your vacations plans.

Australia is hub of beautiful places, where you can enjoy the most ever in your life with your family. There are various places to visit during tour like as the Great Barrier and Kakadu National Park. It also has natural treasures, which will offer and help you in the exploration of Australia.

You can also visit some of the best destination of Australia like as:
Virgin Blue: Flies towards Virgin Blue at the eastern part of Australia, which connects nicely between Sydney and Melbourne. You have a chance to explore the Sunshine coast, Brisbane and the beautiful Gold coast of Australia with the help of Flights Australia. You can also flies toward Adelaide, Broome, Darwin and Perth.
Jet star: it helps in operating Melbourne Avalon Airport. It has only the place, where 14 different destination airlines land within Australia, included the Gold coast, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and the Sunshine Coast.
Skywest: Skywest flies the western part of Australia, Northern territory of Darwin and to Bali.
Train: you can use trains to view the beautiful country and its stunning destinations. You can also make a plan to visit "Ghan", it will provide an exciting and unforgettable experience for whole life.

You can enjoy the nightlife and events of Australia by business class to Australia. Australia will also offer the wildlife exploration during your visit here and various places. Sydney is the hub of beautiful beaches, so don't missed the enjoyment of beaches. You can enjoy the sun bath at the beaches It is very tough to write in just few words. So take flights Australia and know by yourself that how much this country is beautiful and amazing. So don't wait for long to make plans to visit here. Just book your ticket and reach to Australia.

Australia: How to realize your dream?

Australia is an extremely popular destination for highly skilled young people wishing to start a new life in another country. Moving to Australia is a better option as the country's economy is strong and country is actively encouraging the immigration to Australia. Skilled migrants wishing to work in Australia will need work permit in Australia and their work will be assessed on a point based system with points awarded for work experience, qualification and language proficiency. Other ways of obtaining immigration visas to Australia include the Australian Family Migration and Humanitarian programs.

Australia's Migration Program for 2007-2008 provides for up to 152,800 places, with 102,500 of those under skilled migration - such as the Australian Skilled Independent Visa.

The Australian immigration program has many opportunities for people with a variety of backgrounds, ages, qualifications and needs. There are a number of reasons to migrate to Australia. One can choose among them:
  • there is a strong emphasis in the Australian immigration program on attracting people who can contribute to the economy.
  • Australian permanent residence can be gained if one is willing to live in Australia.
  • Provisions are made for people ready to invest in Australian economy.
  • Improve the proficiency in English and obtain qualifications from Australia's world class institutions.
  • Work permit visas allow young people from a number of participating countries to support themselves while having the time of their lives Down Under.

There are the number of types of visas to Australia are available. These are:

Skilled independent: This visa subclass is the most popular skilled migration category for those looking to emigrate to Australia and is geared to skilled workers.

Skilled- Sponsored: An Australian skilled immigration category for skilled applicants looking to emigrate to Australia who have close family members living in Australia.

Skilled-regional Sponsored: This visa is for skilled migrants who either have sponsorship from a participating state government or have a sponsorship from a relative who lives in designated area of Australia who is willing to sponsor them.

Skilled-Regional: An Australian skilled migration category for skilled migrants looking to emigrate to Australia who have been living in Australia on skilled-Regional Sponsored visa and are seeking a permanent visa pathway.

Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme(RSMS): It allows employers to sponsor skilled migrants for job vacancies. The RSMS visa provides permanent residency.

Skills Matching Visa: This Australian migration visa is for those who may or may not meet point tests and are seeking to be nominated by an Australian state /territory or employer.

Labor Agreements: This enables Australian employers to recruit a specified number of workers from overseas in response to identified skill shortages in the Australian labor market.

Graduate -Skilled: An Australian immigration category for foreign students who have family in Australia and have recently completed a program of study in Australia.

In last:

"The inner city areas offer a great and varied nightlife, coupled with the opportunity to experience the famous sandy beaches of the coast. Christmas in the sun is a novelty for many Europeans, although the UK style socializing culture is still very much prevalent."

Forex Australia - The Australian Dollar Developing

By way of the Australian dollar being indexed as one of the biggest changed currencies, there is no doubt that Forex Australia plays an incomparable duty in the people's economic system. Australia has an approximated community of 22 million, amidst an unemployment estimate of less than 10%. A thriving country, its collectivized economy is deemed as the thirteenth biggest in the globe and follows the free-market class of economy.

Foreign Exchange Market is the monetary market for currency trading. Forex makes easier international business and business transactions. Countries like Australia can buy and sell goods through foreign exchange by converting one currency to another. Forex Australia or FX Australia trading contributes to the country's financial growth. Because of foreign currency Australia trading, the business-related needs of the citizens are met.

If you are interested in exchange currency Australia business but don't know how it works, then the following tips can help you a lot to start Forex Australia business. No trader can start trading for exchange currency Australia without appropriate training and education. In-depth understanding of how Forex Australia works is high-ranking if you want to be an effective trader.

Beginner traders interested in FX Australia business can now take advantage of the foreign exchange commerce live demo account and live trading webinars from a professional trader that can provide step by step trading strategy on how to become an effective trader. For advanced traders who want to improve their skills on foreign currency Australia trading, live fx accounts by way of more advanced trading tools are provided as well as unlimited live business webinars. Enhancement recordings to condition the mind for exchange currency Australia trading success can also be provided.

Advanced traders can also take advantage of the foreign exchange scalping method to maximize their potentials in Forex Australia or FX Australia trade. This method involves the use of leverage on short time periods to earn quick profits.

Assistance from a professional broker is also a must when trading for Forex Australia. The professional broker can provide you insights and tips on how to succeed in FX Australia trade. Forex Australia business is complicated, however with the right broker you won't have a hard time figuring things out. The right broker can provide you services such as safety of funds, powerful training, cost effective funding, maximized convenience, and superior execution of trades among others. All of these services can enhance your training experience when it comes to trading foreign currency Australia.

When it comes to Forex Australia trading, having the right mentality is important. In trading foreign currency Australia, you should learn how to set your mind to achieve your goal. With this approach, you will be able to start trading exchange currency Australia with a lot more determination and confidence. Maximizing one's trading potential involves risks such as losing large amount of investment however with these tips you can enhance your skills and experience when trading the Forex Australia or FX Australia.

Studying in Australia

Australia is one of the worlds leading education and training providers. There are over 400,000 students from 200 countries studying in Australia each year. Top Australian universities provide infinite opportunities and courses. You can choose from courses including traditional areas of learning and vocational courses as well. All the Australian universities have their own areas of specialization. There are universities in all major Australian cities and throughout regional areas of the country ranging in size from around 3,000 students to 50,000 students. About 20 percent of students enrolled in Australian universities are from overseas. Most popular streams for Study in Australia are Law, MBA, English and Engineering.

Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world, and the tuition fees and living costs are cheaper than in comparable countries like the US, UK and Canada. In addition, Australia offers a safe and student-friendly environment with a cultural diversity that is rich enough to enable students to integrate comfortably into the Australian way of life. Australia is the world's smallest continent and the largest island. It is like nowhere else in the world. It has an area as big as mainland of the United States but has a population of only 20 million people. The population is comprised of over 130 nationalities which makes Australia one of the most multicultural countries in the world. This broad ethnic mix has created a rich cultural blend of languages, fashions, architecture and cuisines.

There are several reasons to choose Australia as an education destination. Education in Australia is both challenging and flexible but most importantly it is internationally recognized and respected. Institutions in Australia must be accredited and courses offered to international students must be approved and listed on the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students (CRICOS). Qualifications offered to students in Australia must fit the Australian Qualifications Framework. The staff at Australian institutions is also very experienced in helping students from other countries, and there are well-established support systems in place for international students who come for education in Australia.

In a nut shell Australia is a dynamic and vibrant country with a great deal to offer students looking for international education:
  •     Australia has dynamic and progressive education programs with a reputation for excellence
  •     Australia has globally-recognized courses and qualifications
  •     Australia has a relaxed, enjoyable and safe lifestyle
  •     Australia has cheaper study and living expenses compared to many other countries
  •     Australia has vibrant, appealing and multicultural cities
  •     Australia has great weather
  •     Australia has amazing and diverse landscapes and scenery
  •     Australia has unique and wonderful flora and fauna.

Australia has great employment opportunities in International Companies after passing out from any Australian University. Moreover, with the changes in Assessment level for India from July 2011 will benefit students in Documentation, Financial support and evidence result in increase in trend for Australian Study. Australia is a safe, modern and dynamic country that is a leader in the Asia-Pacific region and which plays a significant role worldwide.

The Social Engineering of Australia's Early Immigration Policy

There is little, if any doubt, that Australia's immigration  policy was a socially engineered one.  In order to better understand the implications of this claim, it is firstly important to define socially engineered policies as public policies which are designed to satisfy a specific societal purpose or lead to well-defined social outcomes.  Within the context of this question, socially engineered immigration policy refers to an immigration framework which is designed to satisfy a certain image of society and ensure, or at least try to, a specific demographic and racial composition.  Added to that, if Australia's immigration policy was socially engineered as this research will try to establish, the country was hardly unique in this regard.  Indeed, it would not be an exaggeration to claim that most immigration policies, both past and present, are socially engineered.  With that in mind, this research will engage in a historical overview of Australia's immigration policy, for the purposes of establishing that it was socially engineered.

Australia's earliest immigration policies were inspired by the need for labour and, to this extent, were seemingly economically engineered. As Aboriginals were not a significant source of labor for colonial Australia, labor had to be brought in from overseas, initially from Britain. The original means of Australian settlement and development was "transportation," the shipment of convicts to Australia that began in 1788. The use of 'transportation' served a two-fold purpose: a labor force, as available for the settlement of the new colony, and it provided an outlet for Britain's convict population. The United States' Declaration of Independence effectively eliminated the American colonies as a destination for convicts, as had been the earlier practice.The cessation of 'transportation' of convict labor to Australia in the mid-nineteenth century provoked a shortage of workers in the pastoral industry and raised the idea of replacing convicts with indentured workers or "coolies."It need be noted here that even though the described policy was largely informed by economic imperatives, it was, arguably, socially engineered on both the British and the Australuan sides.  On the British side it was socially engineered in the sense that Britain dictated that policy in an effort to cleanse its own society from criminal elements.  On the Australian side, it was partially socially engineered to the extent that the earlier waves of settlements were white Anglo-Saxons and other races were hardly welcomed as citizens, or settlers.

In further confirmation of the fact that economic imperatives did not distract the Australian public or its policy makers from the social aspect and societal consequences of immigration, reactions to blackbirding are quite informative.   During the 19th  and early 20th  centuries, there was a practice of enslaving, often by kidnapping, natives of Fiji, Samoa, and the South Pacific islands to work on the cotton and sugar plantations of Queensland. This practice of kidnapping and enforced enslavement,  blackbirding, sheds light on the confluence of economic, racial, and political motivations in early Australia. Despite government efforts to control and eliminate the practice, it flourished.  The reasons why it flourished were that the practice satisfied an economic motive.At the same time, it is important to note that there was a public outcry against it, not because of its illegality or blatant disregard for the humanity of others but because the popular and official perception was that blackbirding, which effectively introduced Kanakas into Australian society, threatened its Anglo-Saxon and racial composition.Therefore, even when economic imperatives dictated a specific type of forced immigration, social concerns protested the said policies and led to their elimination.

As indicated in the preceding and as confirmed by Elazar and Medding, the Australian tendency towards the adoption of socially engineered immigration policies manifested itself from the outset.  By the mid to late nineteenth century, Australia had a significant Chinese/Asian population, numbering close to 25,000 in Victoria alone and the Australian public was intolerant of the situation.  It was thus that the government embarked upon the adoption of a discriminatory immigration policy, on the one hand, and legislature which gave the government the right to deport any Kanakas from the country following 1906.It was within the context of the above described environment that Edmund Barton, Australia's first Prime Minister and his government effectively legislated the 'White Australia' policy through three means. First, a dictation test was required for non-British immigrants based on one introduced in Natal, South Africa in 1897; it was normally given in a language not understood by the intending immigrant and was not a test of literacy.Second, non-whites were allowed to enter Australia only on a temporary basis and under special permitThird, shipping companies simply would not issue tickets to non-Europeans who, in any case, were not likely to attempt to settle in the knowledge that it would not be allowed.   However, the Immigration Restriction Act itself was simply a shell. It contained almost no reference to the categories of immigrants the Australian government wished to encourage. There was no requirement that there even be an immigration policy. Moreover, procedural safeguards and appeal rights were absent. Officials were permitted a great deal of discretion to exclude an unwanted immigrant. The White Australia policy had, to all intents and purposes, come into effect and with it, the rigorous social engineering of Australian society.

The "White Australia Policy" effectively excluded Asians and other non-whites and also strictly regulated the admission of non-British Europeans through various legislated and discretionary policies. For example, there were restrictions of specific groups of Southern European immigrants in response to "particular, and at times threatening, political situations."  There was an apparent dual immigration policy: the encouragement of British and the restriction of European and certainly all Asian immigrants. This was enforced through the imposition "of quotas which were not necessarily made public so that their existence was often unknown to immigrants" and through the requirement of landing-money, a rigid requirement "that was well-publicised and designed to deter European immigrants."

Indeed, restrictions on immigration had several forms at the end of World War I, solidifying the claim that Australia immigration policy was socially engineered.   First, there was specific exclusion of ex-enemy aliens. Germans, Bulgarians, Hungarians, and Turks were prohibited from entering Australia for a period of five years. In addition, in the 1920s the government opposed  the idea of an influx of Jewish refugees from Poland. Polish immigrants were considered undesirable because it was thought that they were poor, uneducated, and would cluster in the poorer urban areas and be exploited "by the enterprising business Jews." British Jews, however, were welcome in any numbers. Although Jewish immigration was being limited, it is important to note that immigration from other parts of Europe (the "non-Aryan" parts, in terms of the prevailing racial typology) was limited as well.

In 1945 a Department of Immigration was created and the country was opened to refugees and other immigrants leaving war-tom Europe. The goal, according to Arthur Calwell, first Minister of Immigration, was to "populate or perish" and "30 million was essential to ensure the country's security from threats from the yellow peril to the north"  This goal had the support of all political parties, a consensus which continued until the early 1970s. Two percent was regarded as the desirable annual level of population growth to which immigration might contribute one percent.

The passage of the 1958 Immigration Act replaced the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. As Chandmsekhar says, "This did not mean that the 'White Australia' policy was abandoned. The exclusion of Asians and other non- whites continues but the method of exclusion is changed. Instead of the 'dictation test.' ministerial discretion is introduced. The new Act was based, instead, almost exclusively on discretion. This discretion gave the Cabinet and the Department of Immigration the capacity to take steps to vary the size of the intake and the nature of the selection procedures without necessarily having to submit these changes to Parliament.The government changed its policy at will, often without informing the public. Immigration officers could enforce these changes with little interference from those people who were affected. The exclusion of Asians was administratively rather than legally enforced, but it was even more effective because of that. "Racial appearance was the important criterion rather than country of origin or culture. and exceptions were made for Asians of  predominantly European heritage and appearance.

The effective exclusion of non-Europeans lasted until 1966. In that year, the Minister for Immigration announced that a few well-qualified immigrants from Asia would be admitted under stringent conditions. This was the first crack in the racist immigration policy which had been zealously applied since 1945 - to the point of denying entry to Asian wives of returning Australian soldiers.This "crack" occurred not because of a legal change, but rather because of the extreme discretion that could be exercised under the 1958 Immigration Act. Downer's third category mentioned in 1959, the distinguished and highly qualified' people noted above, was widened to include practically anyone who had skills that would ensure employment in Australia, and in 1966 the period of temporary residence required before permanent status was granted was lowered to five years. In that same year the government announced that

application for entry by well-qualified people wishing to settle in Australia will be considered on the basis of their suitability as settlers, their ability to integrate readily, and their possession of qualifications which are positively useful to Australia …The number of non-European people entering - though limited relative to our total population - will be somewhat greater than previously, but … the basic aims of preserving a homogeneous population will be maintained.

The exclusion of Asians was not officially repudiated until 1973. The number of Asian immigrants remained at the same level that year as had been since 1970, that is, between 7,000 and 10,000 a year. This number did not increase until the arrival of large numbers of Indochinese refugees in 1977. The 1981 census figures showed the longer range effects of the repudiation of the 'White Australia' policy very clearly, however: between 1976 and 1981 the number of Australian residents born in mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong increased by 68 percent from under 29,000 to almost 41,500.

When the Whitlam government abolished the 'White Australia' policy in early 1973, the lack of a coherent policy in immigration selection was addressed. An impetus for reform, in addition to the removal of the racist element, was that changes were occurring in Australia in the area of administrative law. This issue, although not coming to a head until somewhat later in the 1970s, resulted in Australia's Human Rights Commission and the Administrative Review Council conducting inquiries into immigration law. The central concern of these inquiries was to promote legal norms such as fairness and consistency.

As may have been deduced from the foregoing argumentative research, Australia employed discriminatory and exclusionist immigration practices from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1970s, practices enacted for a variety of reasons including eugenics, economics, xenophobia, and nationalism. Over this period of nearly one hundred years, the 'White Australia' policy remained virtually unchallenged. When the 'White Australia' policy finally fell in 1973, the new immigration system scuttled the policy of racial hegemony and removed the opportunity for discretionary action.  Within the context of the stated, it is more than apparent that Australia's immigration policy, at least for the one-hundred years analysed, was socially engineered.

Immigration to Australian Capital Territory Jumps

Almost 1,400 new migrants have been granted their Australian visas and are now trying their luck at the Australian Capital Territory. This is in response to the state's aggressive campaign to bring in more skilled and professional migrants to combat the labor shortage. As reported by ABC News Online, Acting ACT Chief Minister Katy Gallagher says “the city can handle the growth as the Government's Live in Canberra campaign starts to pay dividends.”

This exodus of skilled migrants is the highest in a decade. And while Canberra is still experiencing severe housing and rental problems, this hasn't deterred people from wanting to live and migrate to Australia. For the past three months, real estate in Australia has been bleak. Economist Simon Tennent from the Housing Industry Association cites that the country is about 25,000 dwellings short, with the rental market the biggest sufferer. Canberra is up about two-and-a-half per cent over the last three months.

But the ACT Government declares Canberra can accommodate the growing number of overseas migrants. If anything, this Australian immigration is a welcome addition not just to the state's workforce but to the overall community as well. "We've got a lot of housing coming onto the market soon," Chief Minister Gallagher said.

True enough, as housing steadily mends itself, migration to Canberra gets a lot easier. Again, quoting from ABC News Online, “a Canberra migration agent says it is easier to migrate to the ACT than anywhere else in Australia. We get a sponsorship in a month or two months' time, whereas in other states, it takes nearly six months to get a sponsorship."

Overall, these figures mean a win-win situation for both the state government and all skilled and professional migrants. Indeed, immigration to Australia has never seen better times such as now. And hopefully the trend will continue in the years to come. Come and Live in Australia! At National Visas, you get straightforward solutions to all your Australian visa application and concerns. Take a free online assessment now, because Australia wants you more than ever!